This year marks the 70th anniversary of the Battle of the Bulge (also known as the Battle of the Ardennes). Fought December 16, 1944-January 16, 1945, this was the last significant German assault against the Allies in World War II.
Hitler’s plan had two objectives: to capture the port city of Antwerp, Belgium, and in doing so split in half General Dwight Eisenhower’s forces; and to destroy four Allied armies located between Bastogne, Brussels, and Antwerp.
Early in the morning of December 16, 1944, the Germans surprised the Allies in the fog, cold, and snow along a 75-mile front in the Ardennes Forest. The surge of German forces created the “bulge” in the front line as the three Allied divisions positioned there pulled back.
From December 17-22, the allies held back the Germans while reinforcements arrived. December 23 brought good weather, and the Allies began attacking by air. Some American troops were surrounded in the city of Bastogne until December 26 when it was relieved by General George Patton.
Fighting continued until the Germans began a withdrawal on January 8. The original front line was reconstructed by January 25. Hitler did not have the material, manpower, or resources to mount another large-scale attack. The Allies suffered casualties of approximately 80,000; the Germans’ losses were approximately 100,000.
American Memory, Library of Congress, Situation Maps
History Reference Center (BPL database)
Government Documents Department